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Week: Text reference (APA):

Li, L., & Lin, T. T. (2019). Over-connected? Exploring smartphone addiction among working adults in China. BMC psychiatry, 19(1), 186.

In the left column state briefly the type of connection you want to make between the ‘main ideas’ in the ARC text and the text you want to ‘connect’ it with. The ‘type of connection’ might be, for example, ‘comparison’ or ‘contrast’; ‘cause and effect’; ‘problem and solution’; ‘exemplification’.

In the right column, choose three meaningful connections to share with your group. These connections need to be with ‘main ideas’ in the ARC text, and they need to come from other academic texts.  Begin by paraphrasing the main idea in the ARC text which you want to connect.  Then outline the idea in your other text(s).

Finally, state what the implication of this connection is – what can we learn from it?  This should be explained as fully as you can.

Ensure that you use appropriate citations and references.

Connection 1

Smartphone Addiction

Type of Connection:

Comparison

ARC Text Main Idea:

People get addicted to smartphones through excessive usage which may cause various may cause psychological problems. Smartphones nowadays perform functions which are parallel to demands and interest of the users, which makes the users interact with phones more and less with people.

Connecting Text Main Idea: The connecting text is about smartphone addiction in young people in Switzerland. This study suggests that student from the age group of 15-16 years are more addicted to smartphones, followed by students from the age group of 19 years. Social networking websites are the most frequently used by these students.

People with lower level of physical activity and a higher level of stress are the most addicted to smartphones in Switzerland, according to the study. Lack of physical activities and more stress also make people fall prey to mental illnesses.

Implications:

This connection is vital in comparing the results of smartphone addiction in different age groups and different segments of human society such as students and working adults. The ARC text is about smartphone addiction in the working group, and the connecting passage explains the smartphone addiction in young students.

This comparison is vital because comparison makes it easy to understand a phenomenon and the reasons behind respective actions of individuals and groups. Additionally, these kinds of comparisons are helpful in finding solutions respective problems according to the age groups and class of the users.

Reference:

In Hag, S., Castro, R. P., Kwon, M., Filler, A., Kowatsch, T., and Schaub, M. P. (2015). Young people in Switzerland are using smartphones and becoming addicted to them. Journal of behavioral addictions, 4(4), 299-307.

Connection 2

Symptoms of Smartphone Addiction

Type of Connection:

Problem and Solution

ARC Text Main Idea:

Symptoms of smartphone addiction are multiple and may differ according to the way of smartphone usage. These symptoms include withdrawal, salience, conflict, tolerance, relapse and reinstatement, euphoria, and phantom phone signals.

Connecting Text Main Idea:

The connecting text also includes the symptoms of smartphone addiction. This study attempted to propose diagnostic criteria for people addicted to smartphone usage.

Three criteria were used as cut-off points to diagnose smartphone addiction, and they were three symptom criteria, sensitivity criteria, and specificity criteria. The accuracy for these criteria was 84.3%, 79.4%, and 87.5% respectively. These criteria were used to diagnose the almost all the same symptoms mentioned in the ARC main text.

Implications:

This connection can prove to be significant in the study of smartphone addiction and finding solutions for the problem. The ARC text provides the idea of smartphone addiction, its symptoms, and the psychological factors which may be connected to this addiction.

The psychological factors attached to the symptoms of addictions as the following. Withdrawal is the arousal of negative feelings in a situation of inability to perform a task. Salience is the dominance of activity on a person’s brain which does not get off the mind at any point in time.

Conflict is simply doing something which causes a dispute with others or their activities. Tolerance emerges with the increase in time people spend on a particular action. Relapse and reinstatement are when a person applies the same level of energy to restart an activity as he/she did to stop doing it. Euphoria is the buzzing or high feeling happening to a person when performing any task. Phantom phone signal is an illusion a person gets that his/her phone is ringing or received a notification.

The connecting passage has comprehensive criteria and procedures for diagnosing the addiction in smartphone users. The problematic usage of smartphones can be reduced through a framework designed using this connection between these two studies.

Reference:

Lin, Y. H., Chiang, C. L., Lin, P. H., Chang, L. R., Ko, C. H., Lee, Y. H., & Lin, S. H. (2016). Proposed diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction. PloS one, 11(11).

Connection 3

Psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction

Type of Connection:

Contrast

ARC Text Main Idea:

Smartphone addiction is also related to certain psychological factors. These psychological factors are conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extroversion. These factors play an important role in determining the level of addiction of the users to their smartphones.

Connecting Text Main Idea:

The connecting text narrates the connection between personality traits and smartphone addiction. Age is also a determinant of smartphone addiction, according to this study.

According to the survey results, 13.3% of people, from the sample chosen, were addicted to smartphone usage. Personality variables like openness, narcissism, neuroticism, and age are among the determinants of smartphone addiction.

According to this text, conscientiousness and neuroticism are not significant influencers of smartphone addiction. Conscientiousness refers to self-discipline, achievement, and dutifulness of a person, and these people are likely to develop smartphone addiction. Neuroticism is a person’s tendency to be emotionally unstable, and these people are likely getting addicted to smartphones.

Implications:

The above two studies complement each other in a way that they both include psychological factors which determine and influence smartphone addiction. Both these studies have tested the psychological factors which are believed to be controlling smartphone addiction. They provide detailed information about these factors and can be significant in the efforts of reducing this addiction. What is more important is that both pieces of research have used different methods of data analysis and have got almost the same results. These two can be compared to deduce a more logical conclusion.

Reference:

Pearson, C., & Hussain, Z. (2016). Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors. Addicta: The Turkish Journal of Addictions, 3 (2), pp.1-15.

ARC Group Leader: Mobile phones among young adults

A Week:

Here is this week’s APA reference. Make sure you use the AES information.

Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D. J., Romo, L., Morvan, Y., Kern, L., Graziani, P., … & Schimmenti, A. (2017). Self-reported mobile phone dependence among young adults: A cross-cultural European survey. The Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(2), 168-177.

B Make a summary of the key ideas presented in the text. Concisely write this and use your own words.

    •  The article discusses the harmful effects that are associated with the use of mobile phones.
    • Moreover, the researcher investigates the various pattern of mobile phone use in ten European Countries.
    • The research presents that Information Communication Technology contributes to the reduction of social inequalities and facilitate the incorporation of social minorities.
    • However, there are many negative aspects associated with the use of mobile phones, as it reduces the daily life activities of the people. Therefore, mobile has become an addiction that results in numerous psychological issues. The penetration of mobile phone use is much higher among young adults.
    • According to the result of the survey, most of the young people use the mobile phone due to social networking and gaming sites, and they spend most of their time on social networking sites that have become the addition in developed countries.

C Write six comprehension questions to ask your ARC group members. Ensure that a) your questions cover all parts of the text and b) cannot be answered as yes/no or by repeating a word or phrase from the text.

  • What is ‘Problematic Mobile Phone Use’? How would the usage be determined as problematic?
  • What are the indicators of smartphone addiction?
  • What are the variables influencing problematic smartphone usage, and how are they classified?
  • Who are ‘digital natives’? What are their most frequent activities associated with smartphones?
  • What is the method(s) used to obtain data for this research? And why is that method(s) used?
  • Who are the highly dependent smartphone users, and why?

D Write six group discussion questions. Ensure that a) they relate to different ideas in the text and; b) your group has to express their opinions to answer them.

  •     What determines your dependence on a smartphone?
  •  Why do you think people use social networking websites most frequently?
  •    What would you do if you are sent back in time with no technology?
  • What level of smartphone dependence and usage is problematic for the users?
  •     How does smartphone addiction affect human health?
  •     Who benefits the most from frequent and high smartphone usage?

ARC Contextualise: Worksheet

To be completed before the ARC classroom discussion strategies.

Week:

Text reference (APA):

Kuss, D. J., Harkin, L., Kanjo, E., & Billieux, J. (2018). Problematic smartphone use: Investigating contemporary experiences using a convergent design. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(1), 142.

Paraphrase and summarise SIX significant ideas or critical terms in the ARC text.
State why each idea or term is essential in the article.

Next, provide the ‘background’ or ‘context’ for each idea or term.  You should aim to provide information to add clarity to the point you identified in the ARC text. You may explain the meaning of the term, give some history, or give some examples.  You may use one or more sources for this ‘background information’. This additional information should support a broader understanding of the text.  Please provide APA format references for each source; these will not count towards your word count.

ONE 1. Author’s main point from the ARC text:

The integration of internet in mobile phones is increasing the use of mobile phones.

2. Why this is important in the article:

Due to the mobility of mobile phones, people want to access the internet via their mobile phones at any place and any time. That is the primary reason people spend significant time in access to different websites to get information. Moreover, people use mobile phones for shopping, communication, and entertainment purpose.

3. Background information:

According to Katz (2017), most of the people in the world use mobile phones positively, as the primary purpose of use of mobile phones is to access information to enhance the education level. Moreover, people around the world utilise mobile heavily to done everything in a smarter way. Students access the internet via their mobile phones for positive skills development.

Reference(s):

Katz, J. E. (2017). Mobile phones in educational settings. In Magic in the Air (pp. 101-116). Routledge.

TWO 1. Author’s main point from the ARC text:

Dependence-related features lead to smartphone addiction.

2. Why this is important in the article:

This point in the article suggests that smartphone addition is mainly triggered by some of the features of smartphones which make the users depend upon them. Highlighting the relation between the items and features which make the users depend upon their smartphone and addiction to smartphones is important in this article to support the argument that overuse and dependence on smartphones id problematic. This problem may lead to multiple social and individual problems.

3. Background information:

According to the findings of Yang et al., (2019), there are multiple reasons for why people use their smartphones so frequently that they become addicted to it. These reasons why students use smartphones during the class may include boredom in classroom discussion strategies, reduced self-control, fear of missing messages, and social media applications. The engaging features of the smartphones are the reason for why students and adults feel disconnected to the environment around them and they choose to interact with their phones instead which leads to addiction.

 Reference(s):

Yang, Z., Asbury, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). “A Cancer in the Minds of Youth?” A Qualitative Study of Problematic Smartphone Use among Undergraduate Students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-13.

THREE 1. Author’s main point from the ARC text:

The evolution of mobile phones ease communication.

2. Why this is important in the article:

The numerous applications of mobile such as WhatsApp, Skype, Facebook, etc. facilitate the people to reduce communication barriers. Moreover, the use of mobile phones also facilitates financial and banking supports. In this way, it has numerous positive impact on the life of the people Completed classroom discussion strategies..  Also, the advanced applications of mobile phones reduce the cost of communication which is the primary reason for the high use of mobile phones.

3. Background information:

As Thulin & Vilhelmson (2017) investigated that mobile phones transform the life of every people, as it enables people to foster their social communication classroom discussion strategies.. With better communication, people have significant changes to improve their living standards.

Reference(s):

Thulin, E., & Vilhelmson, B. (2017). In The Reconstruction of Space and Time (pp. 137-158). Routledge.

FOUR 1. Author’s main point from the ARC text:

Overuse of mobile phones can result in psychopathological symptoms.

2. Why this is important in the article:

According to the investigation of the researcher, there is a strong relation between smartphones and anxiety. Spending too much time using mobile phones can increase the level of anxiety and depression in the users. The significant reason behind this phenomenon is that people spend most of their time using mobile phones that reduce physical activities and communication.

3. Background information:

Elhai et al. (2017) also presented similar research findings. According to their investigations, there is a significant relationship between smartphone use and anxiety, because people tend to avoid communication with other people, and give preference to their mobile phones. However, some people want to spend time in separate places to provide time for their phones.

Reference(s):

Elhai, J.D., Dvorak, R.D., Levine, J.C. and Hall, B.J., 2017. Journal of affective disorders, 207, pp.251-259.

FIVE 1. Author’s main point from the ARC text:

Anti-social properties of use of smartphones is considered a reliable indicator for problematic behaviour.

2. Why this is important in the article:

The importance of this point in the text can be determined by the level of interaction and pattern of face-to-face communication. Frequent use of mobile phones have added to the disintegration of people with each other because they are busy with their smartphones almost all the time.

This point will prove to be helpful in indicating a very important social issue that is change in the communication pattern and behaviour of the people toward each other and to social groups.

3. Background information:

According to Kara et al., (2019), excessive smartphone usage is making people lonelier and this leads to anxiety. As physical interaction and communication of the people has been sabotaged by smartphones, their loneliness is making them nomophobic.

Nomophobia is the fear of parting from the mobile phones. This has happened because people are more close to their smartphones than others around them.

Reference(s):

Kara, M., Baytemir, K., & Inceman-Kara, F. (2019). Duration of daily smartphone usage as an antecedent of nomophobia: exploring multiple mediations of loneliness and anxiety. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-14.

 

SIX 1. Author’s main point from the ARC text: Author use mix methodology for this research study.

2. Why this is important in the article:

The purpose of mix methodology enables the researcher to investigate problematic behaviour. Moreover, it allows the researcher to develop a better understanding of PMPU-Q-R. Mix methodology also allows the researcher to evaluate the validity of three factors such as dependency, dangerous, and prohibited by focusing on a specific group.

Additionally, this concurrent procedure is much time-efficient and enables the researcher to investigate and analyse more relevant material. That is the primary reason for the adoption of mix methodology because it interprets the findings in effective manners.

3. Background information:

As per the results of Creswell & Creswell, (2017), the use of mix methodology helps the researchers to investigate data from various domains. In this way, the researcher interprets their findings with evidence. Moreover, it allows the researcher to observe particular groups to extract relevant materials.

Reference(s):

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

 

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